Outer Space Agreement
On February 3, Iran announced that it had successfully launched a missile with a mouse, two turtles and worms into space. This is part of Iran`s efforts to demonstrate technological parity with the West and raises concerns about the development of Iran`s ballistic missile capabilities. Article IX of the Outer Space Treaty provides for consultations where one party believes that an activity contemplated by another party would be “likely to have adverse effects on peaceful exploration and exploitation of space.” 1 The dates indicated are the earliest dates when countries have signed the agreements or have submitted their ratifications or accessions – whether in Washington, London, Moscow or New York. In the case of a territory that was a dependent territory that became part of the succession, the date indicated is the date on which the country has indicated that it will remain bound by the terms of the agreement. It is likely that space weapons will begin in the near future if it is not hampered by organized and effective international opposition, or if the current US government is replaced by a government ready to scrap space weapons projects in the face of considerable opposition from national armaments supporters. The 1967 Space Treaty prohibits the deployment of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in space, prohibits military activities on celestial bodies, and contains legally binding rules for peaceful exploration and use of space. The treaty prohibits countries from using “nuclear weapons or other types of weapons of mass destruction” in space. The term “weapons of mass destruction” is not defined, but it is generally understood as nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. However, the treaty does not prohibit the firing of ballistic missiles into space that could be armed with weapons of war. The Treaty constantly insists that space must be used for peaceful purposes, leading some analysts to conclude that the treaty could be interpreted as prohibiting in space any type of weapons system, not just weapons of mass destruction.
States Parties consider astronauts to be human envoys into space and provide them with all possible assistance in the event of an accident, emergency landing or emergency landing on the territory of another State Party or on the high seas. When astronauts make such a landing, they must be returned safely and without delay to the state of registration of their spacecraft. At the regular session of the United Nations General Assembly in 1994, the UN General Assembly reaffirmed the need to consolidate and strengthen the legal system applicable to space; stressed the need for new measures, with appropriate and effective review provisions; and called on the CD to intensify its examination of the issue of preventing an arms race in space in all its aspects (doc. After the treaty came into force, the United States and the Soviet Union cooperated in planned and manned space companies. In 1997, the Un General Assembly adopted a resolution on the prevention of an arms race in outer space (52/37), which reaffirmed the importance and urgency of preventing an international arms race in outer space and the willingness of all States to contribute to this common goal. The 1998 resolution (53/76) confirmed the first resolution and stressed the need for further measures with review to avoid an arms race in outer space. The resolution states that the CD plays the main role in negotiating multilateral agreements, including the PAROS agreements.