Community Workforce Agreement Definition
From 2001 to 2008, the Port of Oakland implemented MAPLA, an agreement on work agreements related to projects that included large infrastructure projects worth more than $1 billion on the port and included high targeted recruitment requirements. Due to the broad support of workers` and municipalities` representatives, the program has been implemented aggressively and is still in effect. Studies have shown that LAA project owners and local communities have advantages and penalize entrepreneurs and non-independent workers in unions. A 2009 study by Fred B. Kotler, J.D., associate director of Cornell University School of Industrial and Labor Relations, found that there was no evidence that PMAs discriminate pending employers and workers, limit the number of bidders and increase construction costs.  In a 2009 report by Dale Belman of Michigan State University; Matthew M. Bodah of the University of Rhode Island and Peter Philips of the University of Utah said that instead of increasing costs, the agreements would bring benefits to the community. According to your report, the cost of the project is directly related to the complexity of a project, not to the existence of an agreement. They found that AEPs are not suitable for all projects, but some projects are good candidates for their use, such as very complex construction projects.  Studies have also been conducted on how GPs can benefit local communities by hiring aboriginal people.
In a paper that focused on whether the AEPs met local hiring targets for projects developed by the District Community College of Los Angeles (LACCD), the District of Los Angeles Unified (LAUSD) and the City of Los Angeles, the author found that the 30% local rent target set by the PLA has been met.  The agreements have been used in the United States since the 1930s and were first discussed in the 1980s for their use in publicly funded projects. In these cases, the public authorities have made the signing of ATPs a prerequisite for working on taxpayer-funded projects. This type of ALP, known as a government-mandated ALP, is different from a PLA that is voluntarily carried out by public or private works contractors – as NNRA allows – and a PLA that has been mandated by a private agency for a privately funded construction project. Executive orders adopted since 1992 have had an impact on the use of mandatory PLAs for federal construction projects, and the last order issued by President Barack Obama in February 2009 encourages their use by federal authorities.